Hogeschool van Amsterdam

Intelligent Data-driven Optimisation of Charging Infrastructure

04. Simulating

Simulation models, and in particular, the agent-based simulation, is mainly used in order to understand more complex systems, such as transport systems [59] [60]. Based on simulation models, professionals can take proper precautions on realistic trends by calculating what-if scenarios. This can provide parties perspective to steer and to formulate long-term policies. An agent-based model consists of a number of interacting agents (here EV drivers) whose behaviour is defined by a set of rules and equations. By applying these rules, and interact with other agents and their environment, various scenarios can be calculated to simulate macro-scale dynamics.


Agent-based models are already used for simulating the behaviour of electric cars and deployment in smart grids; in many cases in combination with traffic simulation models [61] [62]. However, to a limited extent this has been used for modelling the behaviour within the charging infrastructure. One of the few initiatives that have been found in the literature where charging infrastructure is modelled, is the TUM-CREATE program where the system around electric mobility is simulated in tropical mega-cities in a large consortium of companies and universities in Singapore. To this end, we developed a precise simulation (SEMSIM) [63], [61], which includes the vehicle dynamics, driver behaviour, and also incorporates the use of the charging infrastructure.

Within the consortium, other groups use agent-based models to simulate for vehicle-to-grid systems and evaluation of various toll systems [64] [65]. To our knowledge it is one of the few programs where agent-based modelling is used to simulate charging behaviour.

Literature List


P. Bak, How nature works., Oxford: Oxford university press, 1997.


J. M. Epstein, „Generative Social Science: Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling.,” 20056.


H. A. a. M. L. Y. Xu, „SEMSim: A Distributed Architecture for Multi-scale Traffic Simulation,,” in ACM/IEEE/SCS 26th Workshop on Principles of Advanced and Distributed Simulation, 2012 .


H. Aydt, Y. Xu, M. Lees en a. A. Knoll, „A Multi-Threaded Execution Model for the Agent-based SEMSim Traffic Simulation,,” in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Systems Simulation (AsiaSim), 2013,.


E. Bonabeau, „Agent-based modeling: methods and techniques for simulating human systems.,,” in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.`, 2002.


M. J. Eppstein, D. K. Grover, J. S. Marshall en and D. M. Rizzo, „An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, p. 3789–3802, 2011.


R. J. Bessa, M. A. Matos, F. J. Soares en J. A. P. Lopes, „Optimized bidding of a EV aggregation agent in the electricity market,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, p. 443–452, 2013.

Published by  IDO-Laad 21 October 2016